So... i was working on a thing for this journal, explaining all of the things i feel should be changed by the way we look at dinosaurs. this is only my opinion and is somewhat backed up by scientific evidence. so lets get on, and buckle your seatbelts, 'cause this will be a big ride.
We will split into 3 parts
Part one, Feathers (T rex)
Part Two, Innacuracys and stereotype (Pteranodon)
Part Three, Skin Wrapping
Part one, Feathers (T rex)
So first, i want to admit, that we all know what dinosaurs are, you know, the big, scaly, green t rex from your childhood? not so fast there, buddy,
First off, using phylogenetics, we can look at the possibility of T rex having feathers
Credit to mygeologypage.ucdavis.edu/cowe…
So, The closest relative to the T rex, is ornitholestes, a known feathered dinosaur. Compsognathids are also nutorius for having feathers, especilly with the well preserved fossil of Sinosauropteryx, perserving very vibrant, orange feathers. More up on the list is the Ornithomimosauria, which also has direct evidence of feathers.
A fossil found in 2015 revealed that Struthiomimus, had "Dino Fuzz" all around the body, and had ostritch like skin on the legs. meaning that struthiomimus, was more of an ostritch mimic itself, Coincidence, people?
Up the list contains Maniraptora, a group that contains, Oviraptorosauria, Therizinosauria, Alvarezaridae, and Dromaosauria. I think i butchered their names oh well :/. Most of these dinosaurs are known for having feathers. so really, all of T rex's cousins and ancestors had feathers.
Outside of Coelosauria has Sciriumimus, a small, Megalosaurid that possessed Dino Fuzz, which might be evidence that megalosaurs may have had quill like feathers, seen on therizinosaurs
Megalosaurus By Kevin-Studios
And Carnosaurs, there has been direct evidence of feathers on Carnosaurs. Concavenator, a very weird carnosaur, may have had the beginings of wings. quill knobs were found on the arm, which may lead to feathers.
Another non- coelosaurian with feathers is Limusarus, a small Ablieosaurid with feathers all across the body. it is also probably the missing link of flying dinosaurs.
So basically, T rex's Ancestors and its cousins all had feathers. now lets get to the known areas of skin on a t rex
WE BARELY HAVE SKIN FROM ANY TYRANNOSAURS.
the only skin of the t rex was a coin sized impression of scales, on wyrex, a t rex with it's tail bitten off. How ironic. the other is an unpublished skin patch from the torso, likening of a plucked chicken.
most other Tyrannosaurs have barely any skin impressions, but Tarbosaurus, had an undescribed wattle under its mouth. if this is true, t rex and other tyrannosaurs had a wattle under their throat, which could've been used for mating
and now, we get to the holy grail... Yutyrannus, a tyrannosaur that had feathers on the face, back, and the feet. Yutyrannus lived in places up to 10 Degrees Celsius, and T rex lived in... 11 Degrees Celsius? obviously, tempuratures were higher at the time, so yeah. Yutyrannus was almost the size of t rex, but also proved that the size range of having feathers was larger.
Tyrannosauridea Size by Kana-hebi
so, yeah, and lets look at the other piece of evidence... Dilong Paradoxus (Heh)
Dilong was a small, basal, Tyrannosaurid that Proto-feathers on the tail and jaw. it lived 10 million years apart from the t rex, being on of its ancestors. in 10 million years... somehow feathers completley dissapeared into scales. just look at Cetacians for a minute. they still have fur. whales have whiskers on their face that are practically vistigual, and they've had 50 million years to evolve from deer-like animals! T rex would have no way of getting rid of its plumage completly in 10 million years.
so yes, t rex hadd feathers, but because it needed to help radiate heat, it probably had a scaly tail, like some dinosaurs like kulindadromas had, and feathers on the torso, much like the t rex shown at the top.
Part Two, Innacuracys and stereotypes (Pteranodon)
Pterodactyl, the very bat like dinosaur that can carry you using its claws.
Nope, first off, Pterodactyl is NOT dinosaur, it is a genus of pterosaurs, but not an animal itself. when people say "Pterodactyl", they mean Pteranodon.
so lets look at a pteranodon (A)
Credit to whoever made the image (Sorry i could'nt find a source)
now lets look at a real pteranodon (B)
Fish Theft Subaquatic edition by Julio-Lacerda
First off, the first option, A, has bat-like wings that look thin, while B, has thick wings, similar to that of a frigate bird. A has eyebrow ridges, while B doesen't B looks more like an aquatic styled animal than A. A also has a more broad chest, and arms, and are very pronounced. this is not the case on B
your image of pteranodon is incorrect, and option B is what you should look at a pteranodon as. Pteranodon has sadly never changed its image from a monsterous-bat like animal to an oversized pelican. Pteranodon is a cool animal, and its sad to see it never in pop culture as cool as it is. i would love to see movies and shows about the oversized seagull-pelican thing, rather than the bat monster.
Part Three, Skin Wrapping
WARNING: YOU ARE REACHING OPINON ZONE. PLEASE BEWARE
Skin wrapping, UGH. it is one of the worse things you could ever do in paleontology. for those whom dont know what skin wrapping is, it i
s a way that people use were prehistoric animals look like their very skinny and have no fat.
An example of the is Charchardontasaurus. it makes no sense for reconstructions to show its skull very bony. i even drew an image of what they should look like
It would only make sense if theyre were like this more than what is normally shown. and this does not go just for charchardontasaurus, this goes for all dinosaurs. i dont like it how they make the skull look like it has a very light coat of skin on it. it needs more meat on the skull. theres also speculative lips, and im always seeing scales being too thick.
scales on dinosaurs were diffirent than crocodiles. scales on dinosaurs resembled that of a komodo dragon, or hexagonal Reticula.
it just makes no sense to shrink wrap, it looks bizzare, and outlandish. imagine if future paleontologists reconstruct a dolphin with the same logic of skin covering we use
it would look something like this
Reconstruction by Swirlything
Wow, just look at our logic of reconstructing animals, "Yeah, lets just put a thin layer of skin on it and add no meat or fat whatsoever"
Its just sad to see all of these dinosaurs that are skin wrapped, they look like they are starving, while dinosaurs probably had more fat on them. and its not just dinosaurs. the pterosaur i showed you in the last one, A is heavily skin wrapped, and just look at mosasaurs, being these giant, slender beasts, while in reality, looked like lizard-whales. here's a good example of what mosasaurs should look like
Mosasaur by Preradkor
yes, not as intimidating, but it make sense. some mosasaurs, like the one that was recently discovered (Was actually a Tylosaur) lived in the freezing waters of antartica, so maybe fat and blubber could help the animal survive in frigid tempuratures, and help the animal float.
i drew another image of skin wrapping on compsognathus. compsognathus is always been seen having a long neck, and having no flesh on it at all. but it proably had a thick coat of fat, muscle, and feathers.
NOTE: both reconstructions have feathers
so yeah, thats basically it for this journal, i hope you enjoyed, and tell me what YOU think about dinosaurs in the comments
And a big thanks to Trey the Explainer or aGentlemanScientist, the geek group, and All Your Yesterdays for being a good source of information